Osteoprosis
Calcium

Osteoporosis is a slow progressive disease resulting in loss of skeletal bone mass [3]. Living bone is comprised of spongy bone, filled with red or yellow marrow, surrounded by compact bone [4]. As we age these bone spaces increase as the bones ability to regenerate declines [5] this results in the spongy bone structure becomes more porous and weakening of the bones [3]. Age related osteoporosis affects both males and females [3]. Estrogen has a protective effect on bones, by increasing the bones ability to retain calcium [6]. While osteoporosis is predominantly a female disorder, owing to the decreased estrogenic effect, the disease does affect males as testosterone levels decrease, and bone turnover is slowed [5]. Within the first year after menopause females experience a rapid bone density decline, this decline decreases after a year and by the age of 70, bone loss is equal for males and females [6]

Hormone fluctuations.

Estrogen and testosterone play a key role in maintaining bone turnover [5]. When we age, these pulsing hormone levels decline. These means reduced bone turnover and a weakening of the spongy bone matrix [5]. Herbal interventions can be administered by your herbalist, to stabalise hormone levels by stimulating endogenous hormone production.

Calcium.

Calcium stores for the bones peak in adolescence and are then maintained throughout life [5]. Owing to the steep decline in bone mass in people over the age of 70, the calcium requirements of a 70+ year old are equal to that of an adolescent at 1300mg per day. It is however important at this point to not exceed the daily limit of 2500 mg or risk forming kidney stones [2].

Zinc.

Zinc is an essential mineral that plays a role in the formation of new DNA [6]. Zinc is also a key component of enzymes within the body [7]. Low zinc levels are associated with low testosterone levels in males [8]. It is therefore essential in males, that foods high in zinc are consumed. Foods are preferable to supplementation, unless stipulated by your health care professional. Zinc competes with iron for absorption, and incorrect zinc supplementation could result in iron absorption reduction [2]. Speak to your herbalist about foods that are high in zinc.

Physical activity.

Active Lifestyle
Physical activity increases bone density 

Research indicates that resistance training has a positive impact on bone density, while impact exercise does not [7]. Lowered vitamin D levels have a negative effect on bone density [8]. These findings point to, that light outdoor activity daily, will have a greater impact on increasing bone density that would expensive gym contracts. Outdoor activity will both raise vitamin D levels and increase natural resistance training, that will not impact joints negatively.

Research indicates that resistance training has a positive impact on bone density, while impact exercise does not [7]. Lowered vitamin D levels have a negative effect on bone density [8]. These findings point to, that light outdoor activity daily, will have a greater impact on increasing bone density that would expensive gym contracts. Outdoor activity will both raise vitamin D levels and increase natural resistance training, that will not impact joints negatively.

Diet.

Fiber: Spent hormones and cholesterol need to be eliminated from the colon, so that they are not reabsorbed [1]. For the effective elimination of waste fiber is required in the diet [2].

Calcium and zinc: Sea food is high in calcium, zinc, as well as omega 3 fats. This form of protein is an ideal food to be eaten regularly to build and restore the body [2]. To maintain optimal nutrient absorption, gut health maintenance is essential. For more information on foods to consume to build a healthy gut, see the “Maintaining a Healthy Gut” Blog Post.

FlashBack Health

Reference List

1. Ross, J.K., D.J. Pusateri, and T.D. Shultz, Dietary and hormonal evaluation of men at different risks for prostate cancer: fiber intake, excretion, and composition, with in vitro evidence for an association between steroid hormones and specific fiber components. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1990. 51(3): p. 365-370.

2. Whitney, E., Rolfes, S. R., Crowe, T., Cameron-Smith, D. Walsh, A., Understanding Nutrition. 2 ed. 2013: Cengage Learning Australia.

3. Neighbors, M., Tannehill-Jones, R., Human diseases. 3rd ed. 2010: Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Cengage Learning. 544.

4. Marieb, E.N., Hoehn, K. N., Human anatomy & physiology. Pearson new international edition, Ninth edition ed. Vol. 9. 2014, Essex: Pearson Education Limited. x, 1258 pages.

5. Davidson, S.S., Davidson’s principles and practice of medicine / edited by Brian R. Walker, Nicki R. Colledge, Stuart H. Ralston, Ian D. Penman ; illustrations by Robert Britton. 22 ed. Principles and practice of medicine, ed. B.R.W. Penman, et al. 2014: Edinburgh Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier. 1311.

6. Trickey, R., Women, hormones and the mentrual cycle. 3 ed. 2011, Melbourne: Trickey Enterprises.

7. Babatunde, O.O., et al., Exercise interventions for preventing and treating low bone mass in the forearm: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.

8. Kow, M., et al., Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism and osteoporosis risk in White British men. Annals of Human Biology, 2019: p. 1-14.

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